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 Institute for Cartography and Geoinformatics

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PUSH allows to process both point, line and polygon features. It is based on a least squares adjustment process.

In the so-called functional model different kinds of observations can be introduced:


  • Object specific observations (form, orientation).
  • Distances between objects - these observations mainly trigger the spatial conflicts between objects; they have to be adjusted.
  • The coordinates themselves can also be introduced in order to be able to control their behaviour in the adjustment process.

The stochastic model describes the accuracy of the observations. It allows to control the behaviour of the objects during the process.

In this way, objects can be considered as fix or moveable, they can be stiff or deformable, or their orientation can be fix or changeable. This option allows to define individual properties of object (or object classes).



Example for the displacement of buildings and roads: a) Original situation, b) Constrained Triangulation, c) overlay of oritinal situation and result  (min. Distance = 7m), d) quality check: maximum deformation of building edges (in m; the darker, the stronger the deformation), e), strong deformations (due to strong spatial conflicts: min. Distanz = 15m, Strassen sind fix, f) Displacement: min. Distance = 15m, roads are moveable: reduction in deformation in the building edges.

Typical displacement situation: river, accompanied by roads and railroads. PUSH allows to process all objects in a holistic way.

Situation before generalization
Situation after fully automatic processing with PUSH

Integration of buildings and topographic road information

Example for displacement of roads and buildings.

Overlay of building and road -> spatial conflicts
After generalization of building ground plans and displacement with PUSH: objects are nicely separated from each other.

Example: cartographic generalization of digital landscape model DLM50

PUSH allows to solve graphical conflicts in model generalized DLM-Data. Example: fully automatic solution of conflicts in all the objects in the map.

DLM50 after model generalization:
after applying signatures to the DLM-data: graphical conflicts, e.g. highways cover minor roads
solution after processing with PUSH: all spatial conflicts are solved, objects are presented with their adequate signatures.

Documentation / Manual

Manual of PUSH: PDF